Cognitive Theory and the Design of Multimedia Instruction: An Example of the Two - Way Street Between Cognition and Instruction
Richard E. Meyer
Principles of multimedia learning based on a cognitive theory of multimedia learning
(number of tests / effect size)
Small 0.2; Medium 0.5; Large 0.8
Cohen, J (1988)
1. Multimedia - deeper L f words (W) and pics (P) than words alone (3 of 3, 1.90)
W + P > W or P
2. Contiguity - deeper L f presenting W and P simultaneously rather than successively (8 of 8, 1.30)
WP > W P
3. Coherence - deeper L when extraneous W, sounds or P r excluded than included (4 of 4, 0.82)
W + P > WwwwwwsssssPppppppp
4. Modality - deeper learning when W r presented as narration rather than on screen text (4 of 4, 1.17)
Narration > Text
5. Redundancy - deeper L when W r presented as narration rather than as both narration and on-screen text (2 of 2, 1.24)
Narration > N + Text
6. Personalisation - deeper L when words r presented in conversational style rather than formal style (2 of 2, 0.82)
Personal conversational style ("that's great") > Formal ("correct")
7. Interactivity - deeper L when learners r allowed to control the presentation rate than when they r not (1 of 1, 0.97)
Pause/Start (reply) button > No control
8. Deeper L when key steps in narration r signaled rather than nonsignaled (1 of 1, 0.74)
Key steps SIGNALED > nonsignaled
Cognitive Load Theory (AMEE guide 86)
System 1 thinking (rapid pattern recongnition) vs System 2 (slow, analytical)
4C/ID model (van Merriënboer, 2013)
authentic learning tasks
just in time information
part task practice
Symposium speakers Q and A interactive discussion with audience available from AMEE Live as video on demand
Some discussion points:
1. Limited attention span of current generation of students
Students are able to focus for long periods on what interests them.
Students want to become healthcare professionals and have worked hard to get into training program.
2. Too much focus on IT
Key is learning objectives, learning pedagogy, and curated or created content.
3. Value add of online learning
IT can be used to broaden access significantly - "broadcast" and provide pesonalised content - "narrowcasting".
More slides for reference/discussion below.